Development of Competencies by Students. The Case of the University of Lodz


  • Agata Matuszewska-Kubicz University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Department of Labour and Social Policy, 37 Rewolucji 1905 Street, 90-214 Lodz, Poland
  • Izabela Warwas University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Department of Labour and Social Policy, 37 Rewolucji 1905 Street, 90-214 Lodz, Poland



competencies, competency development, human capital, university, Poland, labour market


Aim. One of the challenges of the labour market in Poland is to match competences adequately to the needs of employers and to enable future employees, including students, to acquire these competences before they start their careers. The aim of the research was to answer the questions, which methods of developing competencies are known to the students, which are used by them and how do they assess their effectiveness.

Methods. The research was carried out by mix-mode method, using quantitative (CAWI, N=352) and qualitative (IDI, N=10) surveys, and the respondents were students of the University of Lodz.

Results. The results indicate that the best known and most commonly used methods of developing competencies are: individual self-education, classes at university, professional work, internships, apprenticeships, voluntary work, trainings, workshops, courses. As regards the evaluation of the effectiveness of the indicated methods of developing competencies, the students considered professional work to be the most effective method. Moreover, the results indicate that each of the methods of developing competencies may be effective, and the effectiveness depends on several factors.

Conclusion. Therefore, it seems crucial not only for students to know and use various methods of developing competencies, but also for universities to ensure high quality activities, so that they effectively support the development of students' competencies and respond to the needs of the labour market.


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Author Biographies

  • Agata Matuszewska-Kubicz, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Department of Labour and Social Policy, 37 Rewolucji 1905 Street, 90-214 Lodz, Poland

    PhD in economic sciences in the field of management, MA in psychology in career counseling and organization, psychosocial skills trainer. She works as an assistant professor at the Faculty of Economics and Sociology of the University of Lodz and as an entrepreneurship specialist in the Career Office at the University of Lodz.

    Her scientific interests include: human resources management, competencies in the labour market, changes on the labour market, entrepreneurship, psychology of labour and employer branding. Author or co-author of several scientific publications in Polish and English. She also coordinated or participated in several domestic and international research projects (IDUB - Grant for young researchers, Miniatura NCN, Erasmus). For more than 10 years she has been creating and conducting trainings and counselling in the area of soft skills, professional development and entrepreneurship.

  • Izabela Warwas, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Department of Labour and Social Policy, 37 Rewolucji 1905 Street, 90-214 Lodz, Poland

    Professor at the Faculty of Economics and Sociology at the University of Lodz. Chair of the Department of Labour and Social Policy. Her scientific interests focus on the issues related to human resources management, age and diversity management. Author and co-author of over 120 publications. From 2002 she participated, as a technical coordinator, specialist on evaluation and expert, in over 35 European projects and several national projects.

    Lecturer at full-time studies, extramural studies, MBA, postgraduate and Erasmus+ programme. She developed and conducted several dozen programmes of training courses, workshops, advisory projects and implementation projects for organisations all over Poland.

    Fellow University of Glasgow (2015) and participant STSM in The German Centre of Gerontology in Berlin (2017). Laureate of the prize the Polish Academy of Sciences prize (2016, 2017). The Sloan Research Network on Aging & Work (Boston College) participant.


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How to Cite

Matuszewska-Kubicz, A., & Warwas, I. (2023). Development of Competencies by Students. The Case of the University of Lodz. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 14(2), 328-348.