Raising and Educating Children in a Roma Family to Practice their Faith Through Roma Customs


  • Zuzana Budayová Catholic university, Faculty of Theology, Theological Institute, Spišská Kapitula 12, 053 04 Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6171-3384
  • Marie Roubalová Hussite Theological Faculty, Charles University in Prague, Pacovská 350/4, 140 00 Praha 4- Krč, Czech Republic
  • José Garcia Martin Department of Sociology, Faculty of Political Sciences and Sociology ,University of Granada Calle Rector López Argüeta s/n, 18001 Granada, Spain https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7401-0613
  • Henrich Grežo Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
  • Julinda Cilingiri Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Durrës „Aleksandër Moisiu“, Kampusi i Ri Universitar, Rr. Miquësia, Spitallë, 2001 Durrës, Albania https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0180-3596




education, customs, faith, God, family


Aim. The main aim of the paper is to highlight the education of children in Roma families to practice their faith through Roma customs. The authors identify the practice of faith in Roma holidays which are baptism, sacrament of Eucharist and Confirmation, funeral.

Methods. The authors use the literary-descriptive method which they use for analytical-synthetic gathering of professional and scientific knowledge. They overlap these with the practical field empirical experience of the authors dealing with the issue.

Results. The Roma family is a patriarchal constitution ensuring the transmission of the cultural and customary heritage of the Roma. Through education by imitation, children learn through the customs and habits of their relatives to observe and practice the faith, thus ensuring the continuation of the family line in a living faith.

Conclusion. The Roma have adopted majority Christianity in Slovakia as their own. However, Roma groups retain their customs and rituals, which they have incorporated into their religion and practice of faith. For the Roma, religion and its association with customs and traditions is a connection to God. Therefore, these rituals need to be observed in order to be handed down to the next generation.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Zuzana Budayová, Catholic university, Faculty of Theology, Theological Institute, Spišská Kapitula 12, 053 04 Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia

    Zuzana Budayová comes from the Spiš village of Odorín. After her studies at the secondary medical school in Levoča, she studied at Trnava university (alma mater), where she successfully completed her master’s (2004) and PhDr. (2006) studies. Her master’s degree in special pedagogy (2019) and the doctoral studies (2012) were both completed at the Pedagogical faculty at the Catholic university in Ružomberok. Since 2006, she has been working the Catholic university in Ružomberok, Theological faculty, Theological institute in Spišské Podhradie. As an assistant professor, she lectures in the areas of social work, methods and approaches of social work, addiction, charity work, biology, field social work, and many others. She also supervises the professional practice of students, and addresses the issues related to the Roma population.

  • Marie Roubalová, Hussite Theological Faculty, Charles University in Prague, Pacovská 350/4, 140 00 Praha 4- Krč, Czech Republic

    ThDr.,ThD. - She teaches Hebrew at the Hussite Theological Faculty in Charles University in Prague. Her main interests are Jewish culture, writing, study, interpretation of the Tanakh and the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard.

  • José Garcia Martin, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Political Sciences and Sociology ,University of Granada Calle Rector López Argüeta s/n, 18001 Granada, Spain

    Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Granada since
    October 2011, currently teaching Concepts, Theories and Methods in Sociological Research
    and Introduction to Social Change. He has also organised and directed a Seminar on Søren A.
    Kierkegaard since 2012, as well as various international events on this author, such as the
    bicentenary of his birth (2013). He is President of the Hispanic Society of Friends of
    Kierkegaard (S.H.A.K.), of which he was its promoter and co-founder (2007). He holds a PhD
    in Philosophy with distinction Cum laudem (2007) and Extraordinary Doctorate Award from
    the University of Malaga (2012). All his research work has been (and is) related, directly or
    indirectly, to the work and thought of Søren A. Kierkegaard, of whom he wrote his thesis The
    Doctrine of the Individual in the Diary of Søren A. Kierkegaard. As a result of this research
    work, he studied the Danish language in order to be able to translate the original texts of the
    distinguished Dane. He obtained an official certificate in Danish from the University of
    Copenhagen (lower intermediate), after receiving a scholarship from the Ministry of Foreign
    Affairs for a course at the University of Copenhagen (1996). Research fellow at The Hong
    Kierkegaard Library, St. Olaf College, Northfield (Minnesota, USA), in August 2009
    (Summer Fellow Program). He has also been at the Department of General and Applied
    Ethics, Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak
    Republic (September 2010 and February 2019). At this faculty he received the
    commemorative medal in recognition of his international research work at an international
    congress held there in 2010. Current lines or focuses of research: Individual and society in
    Kierkegaard. The socio-epistemic problem of knowledge: ideology, communication and
    education. Ideology and utopia as factors of social change.

  • Henrich Grežo, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia

    The author focuses on the application of information and communication technologies in ecology and environmental studies (following-up his previous practice in the field of information systems management and programming). In his research activities, he focuses on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies in landscape ecological research and spatial analyses. In his publications, he has pointed out several times the justification of the use of historical map data for the interpretation of spatial relationships also in the current country, especially in connection with the occurrence of flood risk and threat as well as in connection with the assessment of trends and changes in secondary landscape structure. In addition to pedagogical and internationally accepted publishing activities (WoS, SCOPUS), he also manages the GIS laboratory of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra and the administration of several web pages within the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra and SAS. He has participated in the implementation of several national projects (APVV, KEGA, VEGA, SAŽP- Slovak Environment Agency). He is currently a co-researcher of the H2020-SPOT project focusing on cultural tourism.

  • Julinda Cilingiri, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Durrës „Aleksandër Moisiu“, Kampusi i Ri Universitar, Rr. Miquësia, Spitallë, 2001 Durrës, Albania

    Julinda Cilingiri

    Responsible of lecturing Educational Psychology to the first level of study (bachelor) and Advanced Educational Psychology (Master degree), Administering Social and Community Projects, Volunteer Services in Community to the second level students (master degree). Also, part of this position's responsibilities are planning, implementing and participating in thematic workshops, training and research with focus to teachers and pre-university education level institutions related to education and social issues. Part time lecturer of the course "Social policies and the role of advocacy in children's issues", in the master degree level by the Department of Social work and Social Policies, in the Faculty of Social Sciences, UT.


Adamová, I. (2007). Antológia rómskych remesiel a tradícii [Anthology of Roma crafts and traditions]. Štátny pedagogický ústav.

Belišová, J. & Mojžišová, Z. (2014). O Del Dživel – Boh žije [God is alive]. Žudro, občianske združenie.

Belišová, J. (2015). Počúvaj ma, Bože počúvaj /Šun, Devla, šun tu man [Listen to me, God listen]. Žudro, občianske združenie.

Bešenyel, P. (2009). Rómske ticho [Roma silence]. Don Bosco.

Budayová, Z. & Ludvigh Cintulová, L. (2023). Stigmatization and harm reduction of drug users in post-covid era. Acta missiologica, 17(1), 122-129.

Budayová, Z., Ludvigh Cintulová, L., & Mrosková, L. (2023). Analysis of risk of burn out at workers in the field ff social services and health care. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 14(1), 365–380. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2023.1.365.380

Budayová, Z., Pavliková, M., Samed Al-Adwan, A., & Klasnja, K. (2022). The impact of modern technologies on life in a pandemic situation. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(1), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.1.213.224

Budayová, Z., Svoboda, M., Kóša, M., Tudose, C., & Molchanova, I. (2022). Lifelong learning and development for social workers. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 359-368. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.2.359.368

Chovanec, J. (2018). Postavenie a ochrana národnostných menšín a etnických skupín v Slovenskej republike [Status and protection of national minorities and ethnic groups in the Slovak Republic]. Matica slovenská.

Cohn, W. (2009). Cikáni [Roma]. Sociologické nakladateľstvo.

Csámpai, O. (2007). Sociológia v skúmaní etnicity: Úvod do etnosociológie [Sociology in the study of ethnicity: An introduction to ethnosociology]. Oliva.

Facuna, J. & Lužica, R. (2017). Rómska kultúra [Roma culture]. Štátny pedagogický ústav.

Jakoubek, M. (2004). Romové – konec (ne) jednoho mýtu [Roma - the end of (not) one myth]. Socio-klub.

Judák, V., Akimjak, A., Zimny, J., Kurilenko, V. B., & Tvrdoň, M. (2022). The importance of social and spiritual bridging in relation to post-covid society polarization in Slovakia. Acta Missiologica, 16(1), 126-137.

Kardis, K., Paľa, G., Bąk, T., Łukaszewski, B., & Krupa, J. (2023). Social capital and deconstruction of religious ties the case of polish youth during the Covid-19 pandemic. Acta missiologica, 17(1), 151-165.

Kobylarek, A., Błaszczyński, K., Ślósarz, L., Madej, M., Carmo, A., Hlad, Ľ., Králik, R., Akimjak, A., Judák, V., Maturkanič, P., Biryukova, Y., Tokárová, B., Martin, J. G., & Petrikovičová, L. (2022). The Quality of life among university of the third age students in Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. Sustainability, 14(4), 2049. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042049

Kobylarek, A., Madej, M., & Roubalová, M. (2022). Communication Community in the Prefigurative World. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 7-16.

Kondrla, P., Leskova, A., & Durkova, E. (2023). Analysis of religiosity in Slovakia since 1989 and paths of its development. Religions, 14(3), https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14030415

Kondrla, P., Maturkanič, P., Taraj, M., & Kurilenko, V. (2022). Philosophy of Education in Postmetaphysical Thinking. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.2.19.30

Kováč, M. & Mann, A. B. (2003). Duchovný svet Rómov na Slovensku. Boh všetko vidí. O Del sa dikhel. Romano paťaviben pre Slovensko [The Spiritual World of Roma in Slovakia. God sees everything]. Chronnos.

Kraus, B. (2008). Základy sociální pedagogiky [Fundamentals of social pedagogy]. Portál.

Kusin, V., Šebestová, P., & Drábiková, J. (2015). Etika v sociálnej práci a otázky ľudských práv a slobôd [Ethics in social work and issues of human rights and freedoms]. Vysoká škola Danubius.

Ludvigh Cintulová, L., Beňo, P., Rottermund, J. & Budayová, Z. (2023). Post-covid-19 syndrome and impact of physical activity on mental well-being. International Journal of Health, New Technologies and Social Work, 18(1), 1-5.

Ludvigh Cintulová, L., Budayová, Z. & Rottermund, J. (2022). Impact of a coronavirus pandemic on the risk of alcohol abuse. Acta Missiologica, 16(1), 330-343.

Ludvigh Cintulová, L., Radková, L. & Budayová, Z. (2022). Mental health of Roma women in post-covid era. Acta Missiologica, 16(2), 116-129.

Mann, Arne, B. & Kováč, M. (2003). Boh všetko vidí. [God sees everything]. Chronos.

Mappe-Niediek, N. (2014). Chudáci Romové, zlí cikáni [Poor Roma, evil gypsies]. Host.

Matulay, S. (2000). Rómske etnikum. [Roma ethnic group]. In S. Matulay (Ed.), Rómovia včera dnes a zajtra [Roma of yesterday, today and tomorrow.] (pp. 47-58). Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre.

Maturkanič, P., Tomanova Čergetova, I., Majda, P., Thurzo, V., & Kondrla, P. (2022). Perception of the personality of Jesus Christ and its influence on the stroeuropean man of the 21st century. Comparative studies between the population of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Acta Missiologica, 16(1), 107-125.

Oláh, M. (2016). Sociálna práca v praxi. Najčastejšie problémy praktickej sociálnej práce [Social work in practice. The most common problems of practical social work]. IRIS.

Ostalowska, L. (2016). Cikán je Cikán [A gypsy is a gypsy]. Dokořán.

Pavliková, M., Maturkanič, P., Akimjak, A., Mazur, S. & Timor, T. (2023). Social Interventions in the Family in the Post-COVID Pandemic Period. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 14(1), 106–123. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2023.1.106.123

Podolinská, T. & Hrustič, T. (2016). Čierno-biele svety [Black and white worlds]. Veda.

Radková, L., Ludvigh Cintulová, L., Brédová, S., & Budayová, Z. (2022). Analysis of mental wellbeing of volunteers at the border crossing Vyšné Nemecké due to war conflict in Ukraine. Acta Missiologica, 16(2), 169-175.

Rafael, V. (2018). Rómovia v zajatí politiky [Roma in the grip of politics]. Roma.

Repko, J. & Štrba, B. (2010). Kňaz včera a dnes [The priest of yesterday and today]. Kňazský seminár sv. Františka Xaverského.

Rosinský, R., Verešová, M., Rusnáková, J., Sollár, T., & Mikušková, E. (2006). Amare Roma, špecifiká práce v rómskych komunitách [Amare Roma, specifics of work in Roma communities]. Fakulta sociálnych vied a zdravotníctva.

Rusnáková, M. (2007). Rodina v slovenskej spoločnosti v kontexte sociálnej práce [Family in Slovak society in the context of social work]. Verbum – vydavateľstvo KU.

Samková, A. (2012). Rómska otázka [The Roma question]. Blinker.

Schmidt, G. H. (2013). Jada Cyganie! Sladami romów po europie [Jada Gypsies! In the footsteps of the Roma in Europe]. Cyklady.

Selická, D. (2008). Rómska rodina v kontexte metód sociálnej práce [The Roma family in the context of social work methods]. Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre.

Sirotkin, A., Pavlíková, M., Hlad, Ľ., Králik, R., Zarnadze, I., & Petrikovičová, L. (2023). Impact of COVID-19 on University Activities: Comparison of Experiences from Slovakia and Georgia. Sustainability, 15(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/su15031897.

Smith-Bendell, M. (2009). Our Forgotten Year (A Gypsy Woman´s Life on the Road). University Of Hertfordshire Press.

Stojka, P. & Pivoň, R. (2003). Náš život – monografia. [Our Life - monograph]. Slavomír Droza štúdio.

Šusterová, I. (2015). Život olašských žien – Romano nevo ľil [Life of the women of Wallachia - Romano the fool]. VEDA.

Tvrdoň, M., Akimjak, A., Slobodova Novakova, K., & Biryukova, Y. N. (2022). Covid-19 Pandemic and Human Rights – Myth or Reality? Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 221–230. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.2.221.230

Tvrdoň, M., Lojan, R., Máhrik, T., Zaharia, S. & Davydova, V. E. (2022). Homelessness as a Social Problem - Socio-pathological Phenomenon - Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 95–106. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.2.95.106

Vanková, K. (2005). Rómske ženy v ich prirodzenom rodinnom prostredí [Roma women in their natural family environment]. Trnavská univerzita.

Vašečka, M. (2002). Čačipen pal o Roma – Súhrnná správa o Rómoch na Slovensku [Čačipen pal o Roma - Summary Report on Roma in Slovakia]. Inštitút pre verejné otázky.

Vojtíšek, Z., Dušek, P., & Motl, J. (2012). Spiritualita v pomáhajících profesích [Spirituality in the helping professions]. Portál.

Zeman, V. (2006). Vybrané kapitoly z romológie – východiská pre sociálnu prácu [Selected chapters from Romology - background for social work]. Občianske združenie Sociálna práca.







How to Cite

Budayová, Z., Roubalová, M., Martin, J. G., Grežo, H., & Cilingiri, J. (2023). Raising and Educating Children in a Roma Family to Practice their Faith Through Roma Customs. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 14(2), 456-467. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2023.2.456.467

Most read articles by the same author(s)